The Fires of Beltane

Apr 28, 2014 by

Beltane is the ancient Gaelic fire festival of Spring, traditionally observed midway between the Spring equinox and the Summer solstice, and equivalent in importance to the festival of Samhain for the Celts. It was widely observed in some form throughout the Celtic lands, especially in Ireland , Scotland and  the Isle of Man. Both days were times when the veil between this world and the Otherworld, the land of the aos sí , became thin, allowing travel between the two realms. Ritual bonfires were lit for purification of livestock and homes, an all night communal event.  Beltane was also a fertility festival, marking the beginning of the summer planting season and the creation and birth of new plants and animals.

Although most Beltane rituals had died out by the early 20th century, the festival has made a comeback in recent years, especially among Celtic neopagans, Celtic Reconstructionists and Wiccans.





Like Samhain, Beltane ritual involved fire, specifically large bonfires that were sacred and used to purify and protect homes and farm animals. Cattle were driven between two bonfires  or over the embers and smoke as a means of protection from bad fortune and to encourage growth in the coming months. People would walk around the bonfires or jump over them for the same reasons, hoping to to ward off bad spirits and ensure good fortune in the coming season; fire from the ritual bonfires was brought home and used to light new fires in the hearth, with the belief the Beltane fire would purify the home and bring prosperity and good health to the family.





Today, Beltane is usually observed on May 1st each year, although in the ancient world there was no set date for the festival. The ancient Celts held their Beltane rituals when the hawthorn trees began to bloom, or on the full moon nearest that time.  The hawthorn tree held a special place in the lore of Ireland, where farmers would plough around the trees rather than dig them up, for fear of angering the fairies who were thought to live in and under the trees. Legend said that hawthorn flowers could heal a broken heart, but the flowers were never to be brought inside the home because to do so would invite illness, bad luck, even death to enter the house.


Blooming hawthorn tree and spring lamb, County Mayo, Ireland

Blooming hawthorn tree and spring lamb, County Mayo, Ireland


In Scotland, Edinburgh holds a large Beltane Fire Festival every year on Carlton Hill, an event that is more of an arts and music festival than a strict interpretation of the traditional Scottish Bealltainn rituals.  The event is hugely popular, drawing crowds from around the world to watch the arrival of the May Queen and the Green Man, whose dance symbolizes the fertility aspect of the ancient fire fest.



One of my favorite Beltane songs from Scotsman Ian Anderson and his group, Jethro Tull:

Have you ever stood in the April wood
And called the new year in?
And while the phantoms of three thousand years fly
As the dead leaves spin?

There’s a snap in the grass behind your feet
And a tap upon your shoulder
And the thin wind crawls along your neck
It’s just the old God’s getting older

And the kestrel drops like a fall of shot and
The red cloud hanging high a come, a Beltane
A come, a Beltane….

Beltane, Jethro Tull


Lá Bealtaine sona daoibh!  Happy Beltane to All! 

(Irish Gaelic)

read more

May 1, 2012 by

“Maias” – Beltane traditions and rituals in Portugal

Image: The young Maias – young girls dressed in white, with a crown of flowers on their head – Alentejo region (South Portugal).

It’s a spring tradition whose origins are lost in time. Historically, the ritual of the Maias happens on the night of April 30 to May 1. According to the tradition, all the doors and windows of the houses must be adorned with yellow broom (Shrub) flowers and straw dolls. Present in several regions of the country, the tradition reveals different aspects in each, but a common denominator: the yellow broom flowers. In the regions of Trás-os-Montes, northern Portugal (Gallaecia) and Beiras (Central Portugal), these flowers appear associated with chestnuts, as evidenced by the saying “He who does not eat nuts on the 1st May, is cursed by the donkey”. According to tradition, May is the month of donkeys and ritual aims to ward off evil spirits (the ‘May’, the ‘tick’ or the ‘donkey’).

In Tras-os-Montes this ritual coexists with the “Maio Moço” (May-Lad, in English) : young girls decorating a boy (the May-lad) leading to walk down the street to a great uproar, with dancing and singing around him. There are several explanations for the origin of this tradition. One says that Maia would be a rye straw doll and it was customary to dance around it all night on May 1. Another possibility is linked to the origin of the name of the month of May, emerged from Maia, mother of Mercury.

In the region of Extremadura, Maia is a girl adorned with flowers that goes through the village streets with her companions. In the Alentejo region, especially in Beja, the Maias are girls dressed in white, with a crown of flowers on their head, sitting in a chair at the door of the house on the corner of a street or square. However her friends ask passers “one penny for Maya.” In the region of the Algarve is customary to place by the doorstep of the houses rye straw dolls dressed in rags. In the city of Lagos tradition returns every year, with the election of the most beautiful Maia in the city. Source:

read more

Related Posts

Share This