Victorian Welsh Women

Oct 21, 2015 by

Victorian Welsh women of the working class led hard lives and were rarely photographed.

The following photos, however,  show the beauty and character unique to those 19th century  ladies of Wales.

Such a lovely young woman–notice the wide variety of patterns in her garments, including plaid. She is wearing what we have come to know as the traditional dress or costume of Welsh women.  It has its origins in the rural farms of  Wales, where visitors to the country in the early 1700’s took note of the farm wives’ distinctive attire.   In contrast, women along the border with England and in prosperous towns wore English fashions.

The white cap she wears under her hat is known as a mob cap, a linen or cotton head cover with goffered (an ornamental frill made by pleating and pressing fabric ) fabric around the face.  Some  Welsh caps had long lappets which hung down the front below shoulder level.

The  most distinctive feature of traditional Welsh women’s attire is the hat, with its broad, stiff, flat brim and tall crown.  There were two main shapes of crown: those with drum shaped crowns were worn in north-west Wales and those with slightly tapering crowns were found in the rest of Wales. They were probably originally made of felt ( the hat in this photo appears to be felt) ,  but most surviving examples are of silk plush on a stiffened buckram base. A third type of hat, known as the cockle hat, was worn in the Swansea area.

First of two photos of a pair of women, identified as Sioned and Cadi.

  Here, they are dressed in their work clothes, old garments that once were new and fresh…

…like the dresses that Sioned and Cadi wear in this companion photo, also dated 1875.  The colors are dark, but the details–polka dots, velvet trim and ruffles–reveal the feminine side of these Victorian Welsh ladies.

Another woman dressed in traditional costume, this time standing beside a large spinning wheel. Note that her drum-shaped crown is much taller than the hat in the first photo.


There is a long tradition of knitting in Wales; in the 17th-19th centuries, farm women spent many hours creating woolen scarves and shawls to sell to the English and other visitors.  It provided a much-needed additional source of income for poor farm families.


A captivating photo of a young Victorian girl in Wales, posing with her large dog.  Her clothing is indicative of a prosperous upbringing, far different from Welsh farm women.

Beautiful hair!  Even in black and white , this woman’s long braided hair has a rich sheen.

A scene you will often find when viewing vintage photos of Victorian Welsh women: ladies having tea.  The large frills on the cap on the right are lovely, but I imagine they would seriously impair your peripheral vision.

An earlier Victorian photo showing a hand-woven shawl with long fringe, an accessory used by most Welsh farm women. The shawl could be used to cover a nursing baby, carry food or kindling, or as head cover in inclement weather.


A grouping of older Victorian Welsh women in traditional clothing with various hat styles.  Note that some of the mob caps have been dyed black, a mourning custom of the Victorian era. 

I love the little lady on the right–she’s barely taller than the seated women!

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Celtic Women and Kilt Inspections, Part One

Feb 19, 2014 by


No woman understands and appreciates a man in a kilt more than the CELTIC woman.

  Just like the Canadian Mounties, whatever it takes, we will ALWAYS get our kilted man…




In the Victorian era, Celtic women were not averse to using their archery skills to slow elusive kilties….



It isn’t bragging if what you say is TRUE.


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The Acallam na Senórach: Wisdom of Irish Elders

Feb 7, 2014 by

Is ó mhnáib do·gabar rath nó amhrath.

It is from women that fortune comes, good or bad.

~from Acallam na Senórach, author unknown



The Acallam na Senórach (Tales of the Elders) is a Middle Irish narrative from the late 12th century and is one of the most important surviving manuscripts of original medieval Irish literature.  Set long after the death of  Fionn macCumhaill, it is framed around the aged fianna heroes, Oisín andCaílte mac Rónáin , who are traveling the country with Saint Patrick, newly arrived in Ireland.


Some of the stories involve the interactions between the Fianna and the mythical and mystical Túatha Dé Danann; the above quote  from the Acallam na Senórach is spoken in the council of the Túatha Dé Danann by Midir Mongbuide, son of the Dagda, the king of the Túatha Dé Danann and a main figure in Irish mythology.


To read the Gaelic text of the Acallam na Senórach, click hereThe English translation is available  in Maurice Harmon’s book, The Dialogue of the Ancients: A New Translation of Acallam na Senórach,  available here on Amazon.


You can also purchase a lovely choral interpretation of the Acallam na Senórach, sung in English, Middle Irish and Latin and with sixteen voices, guitar and bodhráin (Irish frame drum), HERE.




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